There doesn't appear to be a function module. One method to find out what the characters mean would be to put entries in via OME9, and use SE16 on table T162K, to see what has changed in the field selection string!
The other method is to do a where-used on the table, and find out where the field selection strings are parsed.
,br> For example, a quick look in form dynpro_modifizieren of include FM07MED0_DYNPRO_MODIFIZIEREN suggests:
+ (plus) is a required field
. (period) is an optional field
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