Generally, this is a problem in your network architecture, not one of SAP itself. So you should analyze this from your OS directly.
It looks that the SAP box has a problem to contact the satellite system. This can be due to authorization problems or that the trfcserv.exe is not in the call path (Windows PATH setting in Control Panel -> System -> Environment). I suggest that you first try to call trfcserv.exe from a command line of your SAP application server, that you use to connect from.
If you run register mode, you use the backward path. In that case it is trfcserv that connects to R/3, which apparently works fine.
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